Public Lecture at the Blessing of the Sentamu Building by Dr John Sentamu, the Archbishop of York and Chancellor of the University.
University of Cumbria – Lancaster Campus
“Reflecting the University’s values and the increasing importance of education and higher education in particular in providing opportunity for students to engage with complex and challenging issues in an increasingly volatile and uncertain world as part of preparing them for the world beyond the University of Cumbria in their professional and personal lives and members of society.”
Vice-Chancellor, Governors, Lecturers, Students, Benefactors, Distinguished Guest, Friends of the University, Ladies and Gentlemen.
William Lamb, Viscount Melbourne (Prime Minister 1835-41), in answer to a question by Queen Victoria as to what he thought about Thomas Macaulay’s brilliant essay on education for all, is reported as saying, “I don’t know, Ma’am, why they make all this fuss about education; none of the Pagets can read or write, and they get on well enough”. I trust no one in education will view my lecture as making a fuss. What I am offering, in the words of John Milton, is a clarion call for “a complete and generous education that fits a man to perform justly, skilfully and magnanimously all the offices, both private and public, of peace and war”. Surely to educate our graduates and undergraduates in our beloved University, capable of honesty is the beginning of education.
Education has for its object the formation of character. It is education which forms the common mind: just as the twig is bent, the tree is inclined, and so “We shall never learn to feel and respect our real calling and destiny unless we have taught ourselves to consider everything as moonshine, compared with the education of the heart”.
From a Christian perspective it is a delusion to train the head and let the heart run wild. We should not allow intellectual rigour and character to walk miles apart, stuffing the head with mathematics, languages, etc etc – leaving manners, morals and spirituality out of the picture. Isn’t the aim of education informed action and not merely head knowledge?
A story is told of a boy who was found at the age of twelve being raised by a wolf. The boy had a remarkably high IQ. In three years he had obtained “A” grades in all his GCSE and A levels. Two years later he graduated from a highly sought after university with the highest possible honours in nuclear physics. He was destined for an extremely brilliant future – but he was killed one day trying to bite the tyres of a speeding car in a residential area with a 30 mph speed limit.
During my Pilgrimage of Prayer, Witness and Blessing across the Diocese of York in 2016, walking 1,859 miles, I visited 148 Primary and Secondary Schools, 6 Further Education Colleges and 4 Universities, and was greatly encouraged by the teaching and learning I saw taking place. However, I did also hear a message from teachers, tutors and lecturers, and students alike, that they were desperate for a new kind of education: one that values them for who they are, and draws out their creative energies; one that helps them to ‘bear good fruit’ in every part of their lives: continually learning, being renewed, serving others and living life to the full.
As Grace Lee Boggs writes in the Handbook of Social Justice in Education:
“At a time when we desperately need to heal the earth and build durable economics and healthy communities, our schools and universities are stuck in the processes and practices used to industrialise the earth in the 19th and 20thcenturies…An educational system which sorts, tracks, tests, and rejects or certifies them like products in a factory…to become cogs in the decaying economic system”.
What is essential, therefore, is that we find the balance between academic rigour and the education of our student’s hearts, minds and souls.
This balance can be found in the etymology of the word Education. There are two Latin roots for the word: educare meaning to ‘bring up, train, and to mould’, and educere, meaning ‘to lead and draw out that which lies within’. The African proverb which says that, ‘It takes the whole village to raise the child’ fits with educare. Meanwhile Educere is well illustrated by Michelangelo’s famous saying about sculpture: “Every block of stone has a statue inside it and it is the task of the sculptor to discover it.”
In each human person there is a treasure, a deep beauty within, waiting to be revealed. Together both meanings help me understand how both learning and character are shaped through education. Our beloved University of Cumbria has an exciting opportunity to provide this rounded and grounded approach which holds in creative tension the importance of heart, soul and mind.
Our students live in an increasingly volatile and uncertain world. They need to engage with complex and challenging issues, in a way that prepares them for what it means to live and work and think and lead in that world – personally, professionally and as members of society. That’s the theme I have been asked to tackle in this address.
2. A sketch of a landscape
So let me start by sketching a world in which the political landscape many have long taken for granted is crumbling; old certainties rudely challenged; new forces crashing in.
A world where wealth and power are ever more flaunted; poverty and deprivation ever more stark. Frustrated-hope is palpable everywhere.
A world where traditional religion’s hold is slackening, we see new beliefs and new faiths rapidly spreading to the consternation of established ones, incomprehension, hostility and persecution becoming the norm in this market place of beliefs. Personally, I would say that as a Christian I am not in this marketplace of beliefs looking for a cheap religious bargain.
Where education is emphatically seen as the road to status, to influence, to power and to prosperity, to well-paid careers and opportunities that one’s family could not have dreamt of.
Where the most famous lecturers and professors are courted with flattery, with the promise of the best students, the finest facilities, the highest salaries, the chance to exercise real influence in the state or, better yet, public fame and popular adulation.
It may sound worryingly familiar. But I’ve not been secretly phoning Sam Gyimah for his take on the Higher Education landscape. Nor is it – I hope - a sketch of life under the newborn Office for Students. It is the world of Late Antiquity neatly captured in Robin Lane-Fox’s provocative and perceptive study of Saint Augustine, including his early career in what we might today describe as academic life.
Clearly, there is no neat analogy to be drawn between the North African and Milanese cities of the late 4th and early 5thcenturies and 21st century Lancaster, Carlisle or Ambleside, Workington or Barrow-in-Furness, or the East India Dock Road.
However, you will know that one of St Augustine of Hippo’s early works - De Magistro (On the Teacher) – does give advice and insight about the nature of, purpose and approach to education. Sadly, it would almost certainly not meet the requirements of the Teaching Excellence Framework.
More significantly, his lifelong search for understanding, his relentless – famously restless – pursuit of what truth might be and requiring room in that quest for uncertainty, reformulation and development can aptly speak to us still.
3. A quest for university values
So what quest might this University be embarked upon and what values underpin that, other than the Darwinian imperative voiced by W. Edwards Deming, “Learning is not compulsory; it's voluntary. Improvement is not compulsory; it's voluntary. But to survive, we must learn”?
One answer to that is embodied – the choice of words is deliberate – in the title of our own Strategic Plan 2017-2020 “ Enriching People Through Place”. That strategy gives a specific emphasis to place – the concrete particularity of Cumbria and North Lancashire, the distinctive character of each individual campus, the professional ethos of our various disciplines. Indeed, when this building was opened in the Autumn, there was a wealth of detail about the number of learners it would serve, the health-related fields in which they would work, how this facility would benefit the public services and communities where they would be based and much more.
As Professor Mennell emphasised in her Vice-Chancellor’s Inaugural Address, Cumbria is, by intent and not by accident, an ‘anchor institution’ – one in which its locality and its mission and purpose are intensely rooted in these communities. That does not mean any narrow or restrictive outlook – quite the opposite. It is from our concern with the particular, the specific, and the local that we look outside and beyond that, for example in our widening participation work. We do want to raise expectations and aspirations and to open up – to transform – the possibilities in people’s lives. But we do that by seeing them and ourselves as real human beings, corporeally as well as cerebrally present right in front of us, not as mere Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) datasets or socio-economic statistical reports. The multi-faceted ‘enrichment’ of which the Strategic Plan speaks is therefore of people, not of units of production!
You would not perhaps be surprised that I might say those things. After all, the Anglican expression of the Good News of God in Jesus Christ that sustains me embodies a deep concern for the wellbeing of individuals and society. The theological justification for that lies most obviously in love of neighbour, treated in both individual and systemic ways in the Bible. You will also not have missed the fact that I belong to a Church that has a particular care for the whole of life in England and is part of a global communion, and therefore internationalist, and with a global concern.
Yet those concerns do not ignore the trajectory of present Higher Education policy. That places significant stress on the economic role of Universities. Nigel Biggar, Regius Professor of Moral and Pastoral Theology at the University of Oxford, argues, ‘That government should ask Universities to serve economic goals and to prepare people for the labour market’ is ‘appropriate’. Colleagues here may have taken part in Stephen Heap and John Gay’s workshop and heard them assert that ‘Anglicanism, with its stress on the incarnation of God in Jesus, is a world-affirming faith. That includes the world of work, for which universities will seek to prepare people.’
Indeed, you may recognize how much Stephen and John’s thinking has contributed to the approach and for that matter some of the content which I will be speaking about.
4. Which uncertainties are we preparing people to face?
What may not have received quite so much attention is the extensive range and depth of the change and uncertainties for which this and other Universities are seeking to prepare our students. Let me take just three as illustrations.
You may have seen a recent interview with the Liberal Democrat and teacher Layla Moran MP. In addition to her highly critical verdict on Michael Gove’s tenure at the Department for Education, she highlights the estimate that some 20-40% of skilled mid-range professional jobs will face being replaced by Artificial Intelligence.
McKinsey’s Global Institute 2017 Report highlighted the deep uncertainty about which occupational sectors and which roles within them were more or less likely to be ‘buffeted’ by these trends. Yet the same Report identifies a shortage of skilled staff in 40% of companies surveyed and the possibility of increasing global GDP by 12 trillion US Dollars in the next 8 years, simply by tackling gender disparity in the workforce. The electronic entertainment industry is already worth almost £3.5 billion a year in the UK, with over 2/3 of employees holding a degree: globally, it’s already nearly £90 billion. Conventional work-ready skills will not equip our graduates for the employment landscape of 2025, let alone 2045.
Secondly, the resurgence of religion has brought forms of identity and identity politics to societies that may have thought they had found a form of rationalist Enlightenment discourse that might aptly be described as secular, liberal humanism. As colleagues here, and in other centres of learning have been pointing out, Western Europe in general and the UK in particular are in fact the outliers in terms of religious observance and its place in society.
How, therefore, do we prepare our students to flourish in a world of heightened religiosity, especially where some of the ways in which those identities are constructed and enacted are the reservoirs for religiously-motivated or religiously-justified hatred and violence? How do we enable our students – and staff and communities – to be religiously literate and to understand how to disagree magnanimously – meeting the other person half-way - and respectfully on issues that may be irreconcilable?
In that context, prizing the history that brought this University into being is absolutely central. That strand in its heritage flowing from the bold creation of a 1960’s Anglican teacher-training college and those richly-different strands that came from quite different institutions are both now parts of its unique DNA.
Thirdly, much contemporary political discourse strongly emphasises the rights and freedoms of individuals, seen as independent enactors of their destinies. Larry Siedentop has sought to illustrate the development of that ideal, strikingly claiming Christianity as the proud parent of contemporary liberal individualism!
However, much less prominent in that discourse is a nuanced and wide-ranging sense of what it is to be a citizen. As Dr Rowan Williams, a previous Archbishop – of the Southern Province – has persuasively argued, a genuinely democratic society requires an engaged citizenry, and universities have a role helping to prepare students to be citizens, people who can make a difference to their communities, build capacity, engage in civilised discourse, including on difficult issues. David Ford, until recently Regius Prof of Divinity at Cambridge, pursues a similar theme when he talks about creating ‘Wise people committed to the common good’.
At the same time, as Jonathan Haidt puts it, “For some people authority, loyalty or sanctity are more important than justice or fairness.” 
Grasping how we equip our students to navigate this swirling and highly-contested waters is a vital task, perhaps almost as important as ensuring they understand themselves as a performer (BA Acting); break into the film or TV industry (BA Film and TV Industry); prepare for a career as a midwife (BSc Midwifery) and many, many more.
Indeed, I would want to claim that it is not possible to do all those things that make up the technical, intellectual and personal requirements of a degree without also grasping the nature of the world in which we live and our own part in it.
So, what might we say to the original question: how do we, in this University, prepare our students to live in this astounding, wonderful and increasingly volatile and uncertain world. How can we help them engage with complex and challenging issues? How can we do that not just while they are on campus in Fusehill Street or Channelside or Bowerham Road and so on? But long after they have graduated.
5. Beginning with the common good
Perhaps the start point is to see it as an intrinsic part of our responsibility to tackle questions of ‘the common good’, rejecting the tendency to see questions about what is good as ‘lying in the realm of irrational private preference, rather than public discussion’.
A warning note for ourselves is the perils of not facing these important questions. Not paying attention to the good – as opposed to the apparently successful, productive or profitable – may end in supporting the vicious and violent instead. Gerald Pillay, Vice-Chancellor of Liverpool Hope, who taught theology as a member of a disenfranchised community in apartheid South Africa has written about universities being less than helpful in that context, pretending it is possible to live normally in an abnormal situation.
During the parliamentary debates on the Higher Education and Research Act, great concern was expressed about the alleged sharp practice in some for-profit Universities in the United States, with financial collapse and potential fraud as a consequence. Similarly, our own colleagues in the UK have not been immune to partnerships that have turned out to be less than savoury, with much time consumed and losses incurred at the hands of those partners. Sometimes the need to withdraw from such arrangements – ‘fingers burnt’, as one senior leader put it – has had knock on effect on other, entirely reputable relationships, for instance because of major reviews of franchised provision or accreditation arrangements.
So, we may well choose to focus explicitly more on developing Wisdom as a key value, especially seeing it as combining ‘knowledge, understanding, good judgement and far-sighted decision-making’. We need wise people. We need students who are formed for wise living – at home, work, as local and global citizens.
It is true that wisdom does not appear in much contemporary material about higher education. It is strangely missing from the Office for Students’ (OfS) bumper Consultation on the New Regulatory Framework, as from the Higher Education and Research Act, and its acres of Hansard debate; and even from the extensive resources produced by Universities UK, Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE), Million+ and the wealth of other organisations that support our sector.
But isn’t Professor David Ford surely right in saying that we need to be about nurturing people to engage wisely, not just knowledgably, but wisely, with the challenges society faces. Indeed, wisdom is needed to discern what is knowledge, what is, or might be, true in all the multiplicities of material people can encounter on the web for example. David Ford characterises wisdom as combining ‘knowledge, understanding, good judgement and far-sighted decision-making’.We need wise graduates – and wisdom is one thing the Christian tradition values.
David Ford also says we need to make use of many wisdoms, religious and secular, in seeking to face the issues we do in a wise way. What might that mean in an institution such as our own university, which is not purely a religious foundation and in which staff and students of all faiths and none, and life philosophies, work and study?
It certainly includes the wisdoms of religions, the wisdoms of the scriptures. How we handle such wisdoms in a contemporary university, in a diverse society with many religious and non-religious views, is an important and contested issue not just in the university but also in society.
For some – Archbishop George Carey, amongst others – the perception is that public institutions marginalise public faith (by which he means religious faith of course). That may be the case in some institutions and is not a helpful trend, if trend it is.
Perhaps more helpful, especially in a university which is an active member of the Cathedrals Group, encourages actively creating ‘opportunities for students to consider and debate issues of faith and meaning.’ That does, of course need to be done recognising that there are different wisdoms, and for some members of the university, faith or religion may not be wisdom but something quite different; equally for some of our community, certain forms of secularism may also not embody wisdom but something quite different. It is all part of the mix with which we live. How a University draws on a variety of wisdoms in the present complexly religious and secular world is an important issue – while not restricted to Alex and the Chaplaincy team, one important component is the provision of more opportunities to bring together where religious and secular voices meet around the table with the theological voices neither privileged nor marginalised
6. Pursuing truth
One might reasonably ask about the connection between wisdom (in this sense) and truth. Equally, one might assume that a fundamental principle in higher education is a deep commitment to seeking, articulating and expounding truth. In part, that is the foundation of academic integrity, the commitment to following evidence regardless of whether or not one’s findings will be welcome.
As Dr Rowan Williams articulates it in a number of his works, commitment to the truth also has a wider dimension. It involves living with the world as it is, with discovering the reality of the world, the rhythms by which it lives – the truth of life. One could properly see this pursuit of truth as a fundamental part of the vocation of the scholar, the researcher, the teacher, the tutor, the leader and manager – how might an academic institution based around lies, self-deception and untruth be anything other than a sham!
In the swirl of fake news and alternative facts, there does appear to be a rejection of the nature of expertise and the role of experts, at least in public discourse. Leaving aside the nocturnal flow of tweets from the White House for a more domestic example, you will probably have read or seen widespread coverage of ‘Blue Monday’, the day on which wellbeing is meant to be at its annual lowest for employees. As used to be said of some journalistic practice, ‘Don’t let the facts stand in the way of a good story’.
We know that there is absolutely no scientific basis for the ‘Blue Monday’ phenomenon but that does not seem to be an impediment to its widespread use and the conviction among people that on Tuesday 16 January 2018, their world became a more hopeful and better place.
In this kind of world, Universities need to be places that care deeply about truth and why truth matters. We need to be invested and investing in its pursuit, willing to do the hard work of understanding that enables us to make sound judgements. Our culture needs to promote the giving and assessment of reasons, both what we say and what others say – an interactive pattern of social life.
That mission – for it’s right to call it that – also involves a counter-cultural stance to personal opinion and the strength of our convictions as the lode star for decision-making. We are committed to training people to think about and assess how subjects, reasons and conclusions are to be explored and understood. In this process, our own personal preferences and opinions are therefore unimportant or irrelevant. We are in dialogue with truth, not in a social conversation with a personal friend. We are a community of reason-givers and reason-testers, aware of the subtlety and slipperiness of truth. And that’s not simply a form of professional convention. It’s from a deep conviction, as the Gospel of John expresses it, that only the truth will make us free.
7. Virtues and ethics
If it is really the case, as Mike Higton and others believe, then doesn’t it follow that the University of Cumbria ought to care about creating citizens, which means dealing with issues of the Common Good? And if that is so, then do we not need to concern ourselves actively with ethics and the virtues, forming people in the virtues that they might be good and ethical citizens? Indeed, Higton suggests the very academic process itself requires certain virtues – patience and honesty for example – virtues that are useful in wider living also. Virtues, truth, wisdom all say something about the importance of scholarship – and perhaps about the importance of relationships for it is in relationships that some of these things are learned.
In a related field, Julian Rivers, Professor of Jurisprudence at the University of Bristol, was in discussion and in a question and answer session after his Dearing Memorial Lecture 2016, on “Religious Extremism and Religious Liberty on Campus”, has argued that an important virtue is prudence, which includes the ability to be judicious in decision-making. That in turn has two elements. The first is the careful attention to gathering, analysing and weighing evidence – the opposite of the rush to judgement. The second is the ability to make a decision. Not to defer doing so eternally until every possible scrap of information that might possibly exist in theory is safely gathered in. How might we develop this crucial virtue in our own decision-making, in our assessment policies, in our curriculum work with students or our research agendas?
So let us talk about the good of society, alongside citizenship, truth and wisdom. Something we do need to talk about for as a society and a world community we do face major challenges – to do with financial systems, change, ecology, power, the future of the nation state, the role of the market, the rise of so called ‘populism’, how to live with difference, etc, etc. The challenges our students will face as they move from university into whatever life holds for them. And if we do not prepare them for that, we fail both our students and society.
8. Pastoral care and the whole person
One of the claims that members of the Cathedrals Group make about their institutions links their ethos and values to a more holistic approach to pastoral care, especially of students. Indeed, some of the research undertaken by Stephen Heap and John Gay does indicate that students do feel that universities like Cumbria have a stronger sense of concern for them as individuals, a wider concern for their wellbeing and flourishing.
The 2015 Universities UK report Student Mental Wellbeing in Higher Education and The Higher Education Policy Institute report The Invisible Problem? Improving Students’ Mental Health (September 2016) identify similar factors leading to problems: moving away from home and existing support structures, cuts in services to children and adolescents, not being able to register with a GP near to University, being at a transition point, different methods of learning, debt, living with people not met before, a highly competitive job market, the pressure to get not just a degree but a high grade.
David Mair, Head of Counselling and Wellbeing at Birmingham University, writes about students needing to be educated about self-compassion, and others speak of the need to learn that you do not need to be perfect. In Christian terms, loving your neighbour as yourself implies there is a proper self-love which may arise from seeing ourselves as loved – in my faith, loved by God. Or if that is a bit strong for those who have a different life-philosophy, loved by someone else.
Loved in the sense of being valued, accepted, wanted as part of a group, feeling as if you are at home in the world – or at least in the University of Cumbria, which says something about the whole ethos of the place, creating a university where people are valued, and valued not primarily because of what they achieve but because they are human, made in the image and likeness of God.
I was reminded that Liverpool Hope University appointed a member of the chaplaincy team as a senior member of staff with responsibilities to build community in the university. That initiative predates present concerns about mental health. It is actually about forwarding a particular Christian vision of education. But creating community and networks of informal support in an increasingly fragmented society and, perhaps, university, is probably something Anglicans and many others would want to explore as helping with transition, with getting to know people, with being valued.
Such an outlook implies more than dealing with individual crises and traumatic incidents, though both are important. As a University, it is more about creating particular sorts of environments here, environments in which some of the factors identified as causing or exacerbating mental health issues might be addressed, contained and their effects diminished.
That may also imply a somewhat different approach to what a vision for Higher Education might contain. You may have encountered the Church of England’s Vision for Education, which has the strapline ‘Deeply Christian – Serving the Common Good’. That particular version was initially aimed at those working in or responsible for schools.
But its premise is around how we might better encourage human flourishing, using the foundational principles of wisdom, dignity, community and hope. What might ‘life in all its fullness’ mean for Higher Education Institutions? How might we, in this beloved University of Cumbria, respond to an approach that, “is hospitable to diversity, respects freedom of religion and belief, and encourages others to contribute from the depths of their own traditions and understandings. invites collaboration, alliances, negotiation of differences, and the forming of new settlements in order to serve the flourishing of a healthily plural society and democracy, together with a healthily plural educational system”.
You will, I am sure, be pleased to hear that a group has begun the task of interpreting and re-articulating that iteration of the Vision to match better the specific context of Higher Education. Perhaps this beloved University of Cumbria might wish to contribute to that task?
9. Making it happen
One final challenge for us. The things about which I have been speaking are tremendous aspirations. In general, they are hard to argue against - it would be an unusual university that claimed it was indifferent to wisdom, or unconcerned about truth. I would be interested to see a prospectus of a University in the UK which claims that that university is not committed to excellence.
So the key question for Governors, the Vice-Chancellor and her team, and for all of us associated with this beloved University of Cumbria, is to ask how these things may be lived out in practice? For example, how is our commitment to social justice for example lived out in policies – catering, estates, HR? How are our concerns about improving students grasp of ethical issues embedded in our curriculum and pedagogy? Where is it found in the lecture theatre and seminar room?
And how are these things made a central, an integral part of what we do for the wider world. How are students of the University of Cumbria formed so that they are good professionals – responsible, ethical, effective, thoughtful and wise marine conservators, forensic technicians, criminologists, accountants, scriptwriters, teachers, operating theatre nurses and all the rest?
And one quick test – where would a 2020 applicant find that on our website?
Let us use our common and yet diverse humanity to learn to laugh and grieve together in our common task of combating all those -isms that tend to blight our life together. Take racism for example. A good antidote of this for me is the humour contained in a letter – of just six lines – pinned on the notice board at the reception desk of the Namibian Council of Churches in Windhoek, dated 23 January 1980, which I expanded and now reads as follows:
When I am born, I am black.
When I grow up, I am black.
When I am ignorant, I am black.
When I go out in the sun, I am black.
When I am cold, I am black.
When I am embarrassed, I am black.
When I am ill, I am black.
When I am jaundiced, I am black.
When I die, I am black.
When you are born, you are pink!
When you grow up, you are white.
When you are ignorant, you are green.
When you go out in to the sun, you are brown.
When you are cold, you are blue.
When you are embarrassed, you are red.
When you are jaundiced, you are yellow.
When you are ill, you are off-colour.
When you die, you are purple.
And you have the nerve to call ME COLOURED
Let me close with my thanks for the great honour and privilege to serve as your Chancellor. To have been in post since we were granted University status; to see how the university has grown and developed, to see how it has met and is planning to meet challenges that could not have been imagined when Carlisle saw the foundation of the Society for the Encouragement of Fine Arts in October 1822, or the first 89 students turned up to brand new Lancaster College of Education 140 years later, or Charlotte Mason came into our family in the 1990s, along with our London campus.
We have seen our University grow, so that we have around 10,000 students, a real commitment to partnership that involves a huge range of other organizations, a renewed ambition for transforming people’s lives. The old barracks site of the King's Own Royal Regiment (Lancaster) could not be more different than, say, the Energus Building but both are part of who we are and who and what we shall be.
My thanks also to you, who are the beloved University of Cumbria and who have played your part in its history and will be those who will see this building (named after me) and the University itself serve new challenges and affect still more lives.
“For all that has been – Thanks
For all that shall be – Yes”
 Thomas Macaulay, historian and essayist was the son of Zachary Macaulay, evangelical leaders of the Claphan Sect.
 John Milton, Doctrine and Discipline of Education, 166
 Sir Walter Scott in Life of Sir Walter Scott by J G Lockhart, Vol 6, Ch 2 (1837)
 Handbook of Social Justice in Education. William Ayers, Therese Quinn, David Stovall, p 522
 Deming:The Way We Knew Him. Frank Voehl, (St Lucie), 1995, p. 125
 What are Universities For? A Christian View in Higton, Law et al Theology and Human Flourishing, Wipf and Stock, 2011, p 241
 University of Cumbria Workshop: Anglican Identity – speaker’s notes S Heap and J Gay 23.3.17 (unpublished)
 Technology, Jobs and the Future of Work, J Manyika, McKinsey Global Institute, 2017
 Inventing the Individual: the Origins of Western Liberalism, Larry Siedentop, Allen Lane, 2014
 ‘No fooling about impact’, Times Higher Education, Rowan Williams, 17 April 2014, p.38.
 Christian Wisdom, CUP, 2007 p. 322
 The Righteous Mind: Why good people are divided by religion and politics, Penguin, p 2016
 A Theology of Higher Education, Mike Higton, p. 226 (OUP), 2012
 Gerald Pillay, Leading a Christian University: Some Reflections in Michael Wright and James Arthur (eds) Leadership in Christian Higher Education, Imprint, 2010).
 Ibid.David Ford, Christian Wisdom p. 1
 Ibid. David Ford, Christian Wisdom, p. 1
 University of Cumbria
 Rowan Williams, What is the Point of an Anglican University? The Inaugural Dr Rowan Williams Memorial Lecture, 2012
 John 8: 32
 Church Universities Fund Research Dissemination Project: Anglican Identity of Church Universities: Stephen Heap and John Gay, 2017: interview notes: unpublished
 The Higher Education Policy Institute The Invisible Problem? Improving Students’ Mental Health (September 2016) p 26
 Church of England Vision for Education: deeply Christian, Serving the Common Good p.3
 From The Message, by the Revd Canon Dr John Sentamu, Chair of the Working Party, in Colour and Spice: Combating Racism in Church Schools, Southwark Diocesan Board of Education (1994), p. vii.
 Dag Hammarskjӧld – Secretary General of the UN who died in a plane crash in Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia) in 1961